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Gene Expression Market

Gene Expression Market

Global Industry Analysis (2018 - 2021) - Growth Trends and Market Forecast (2022 - 2029)

Published Date: Upcoming | Format:

Industry: Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology | Author Name: Sayali


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Gene Expression: DNA to Protein

Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins. When the information stored in our DNA is converted into instructions for making proteins or other molecules, it is called gene expression.

DNA microarrays and sequencing technologies are used to determine gene expression. The former measures the activity of specific genes of interest and the latter enables researchers to determine all active genes in a cell.

Gene expression profiling is used by a variety of biomedical researchers, from molecular biologists to environmental toxicologists. This technology can provide accurate information on gene expression, towards countless experimental goals. There are various practical uses for gene sequencing, including clinical research, drug development, biomarker analysis for treatment decisions, and determining ancestry. Some of these applications are better suited to short- or long-read sequencing. For example, long-read makes sense for complex organisms with little reference data, while short-read is best for analysis of DNA fragments. Increasingly, researchers are combining short- and long-read sequencing to obtain the most accurate results.

Our ability to treat health problems has historically been hamstrung by an incomplete understanding of the role our own genes play in the process. But advances in the accuracy, speed, and affordability of genetic sequencing have led to breakthroughs that could only be imagined a few years ago -- and that's creating exciting opportunities for researchers and investors alike.

Gene mutations cause abnormal or inadequate protein production, it can result in one of over 7,000 distinct types of rare and genetic diseases. About 80% of the estimated 400 million people worldwide with rare diseases are caused by a faulty gene, according to Global Genes. Approximately 3-10% of all hospitalisations (regardless of the patient age) are related to a rare disease, whereas 65% of rare diseases are associated with reduced lifespan. The average time to get an accurate rare disease diagnosis is between six and eight years.

According to Rare Diseases International and EURORDIS ~ rare diseases currently affect at any point in time 3.5% - 5.9% of the worldwide population; 72% are genetic, and of those 70% start in childhood.

In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. The Human Genome Project estimated that humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features.

Up to 10-20% of which may be expressed in a cell at a certain time. The human genome has been completely sequenced by different approaches and huge amounts of data are being presented in public databases. It’s a booming business, with gene sequencing become an integral process in many areas of clinical diagnostics and is the primary technology underpinning the burgeoning field of liquid biopsy tests. Though the costs are at higher end, now the race is on to drive the cost down to US$100 or even lower.

The Central Dogma” - Information Flow from Nucleic Acid to Protein

Gene expression is a tightly regulated process that allows a cell to respond to its changing environment. It acts as both an on/off switch to control when proteins are made and also a volume control that increases or decreases the number of proteins made.

There are two key steps involved in making a protein, transcription and translation. To live, cells must be able to respond to changes in their environment. Regulation of the two main steps of protein production - transcription and translation - is critical to this adaptability.

  • Transcription: DNA to RNA (the process of using DNA as a template to make an RNA molecule)
  • Translation: RNA to Protein (the process of using an mRNA molecule as a template to make a protein)

Translating a sequence of bases in the RNA to a sequence of amino acids in proteins requires 3 major components: messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomes, transfer RNAs (tRNAs)

Gene Expression Can Be Post-transcriptionally and Post-translationally Regulated

Cells can control which genes get transcribed and which transcripts get translated; further, they can biochemically process transcripts and proteins in order to affect their activity. Regulation of transcription and translation occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but it is far more complex in eukaryotes.

  • Eukaryotes: transcription and translation are separated in space and time, and nuclear pre-mRNA undergoes processing to become mature mRNA
  • Prokaryotes: transcription and translation are coupled

This coupled transcription and translation can occur because prokaryotes have no nucleus. (In eukaryotes, the nucleus separates the transcription machinery from the translation machinery.)

Information encoded in DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to a linear sequence of amino acids in protein. Although information can flow reversibly between DNA and RNA via transcription and reverse transcription, no mechanism has yet been found for alterations in protein amino acid sequence to somehow effect a corresponding change in the RNA or DNA.

Promising Business

The prospect of using our DNA to inform healthcare decisions is so significant that new players are flocking to this emerging industry all the time. Some are already making good on their potential. However, not all gene-sequencing companies are likely to be winners.

Different categories of companies operating in this field:

  • Gene-sequencing companies: These companies market systems to researchers that can be used to sequence genes using short- or long-read technology. They also sell consumables that are used each time a gene sequence is done
  • Drug developers: These companies are using discoveries enabled by gene sequencing to overcome genetic mutations contributing to disease. Gene therapies developed by these biotechnology companies may seek to shut off (or knock down) a gene's production of a gene, sidestep the mutation causing the genetic disease, or edit the gene to restore normal protein production
  • Genetic screening companies: These companies provide genetic screening services to drug developers, doctors, and patients to inform drug development and treatment decisions

Gene therapy is at an inflection point. Recent successes in genetic medicine have paved the path for a broader second wave of therapies and laid the foundation for next-generation technologies.

According to Medicines in Development | 2020 Report:

  • 6 diseases currently treated with cell or gene therapy
  • More than 100 diseases being explore for potential treatment with cell and gene therapies
  • 362 cell and gene therapies in development
  • 132 a third of cell and gene therapies are in development for rate diseases

The outlook for demand for machines and consumables used by them appears very good for these companies. Illumina estimates less than 0.1% of species, 0.02% of humans, and 1% of human variants have been genetically sequenced so far. As gene-sequencing prices drop, drug developers can use it to create ever more personalized medicine, and people will be able to use it to gain a deeper understanding of themselves via their genetic profile.

Top 10 Gene Sequencing Companies by Revenue

Illumina, Thermo Fisher Scientific, BGI Genomics, Agilent Technologies, 10X Genomics, QIAGEN, GENEWIZ (Brooks Automation), Macrogen, Pacific Biosciences of California (PacBio), Oxford Nanopore Technologies.

Bristol Myers Squibb, Roche Holding, Celgene Corporation, Myriad Genetics, Genomic Health, bluebird bio, Inc., Invitae, REGENXBIO Inc., Guardant Health, Gilead Sciences, Novartis AG, Spark Therapeutics, Editas Medicine, CRISPR Therapeutics, PierianDx are the prominent ones.

Drug DevelopersTop Companies Revolutionizing Treatment

There are about 700 gene therapies under development in roughly 1,800 clinical trials, about 500 of which are in the middle or late stages, according to Informa Pharma Intelligence's Trialtrove database.

CRISPR as a precise genome editing tool has resulted in the establishment of several CRISPR-based companies, and these companies are changing the landscape of Biotech & Biomed.

  • 26-07-2021 Google’s DeepMind AI, AlphaFold, predicts the structure of nearly all human proteins – 3D structures that could accelerate drug discovery
  • 22-07-2021 ImmPACT Bio announces Kalthera merger
  • 20-07-2021 Gelesis to go public via SPAC merger – (Capstar Special Purpose Acquisition)
  • 23-06-2021 uniQure acquires Corlieve and its epilepsy miRNA therapy
  • 01-06-2021 Novo Nordisk to pay up to $600 million for Heartseed drug rights
  • 27-05-2021 ProBioGen and Minapharm incorporate MiGenTra
  • 19-05-2021 Gamma Biosciences takes controlling stake in Mirus Bio

On the other hand, Frontiers in Immunology journal reported that researchers at Centre for Psychology at Coventry University in the United Kingdom have uncovered a molecular explanation for the stress-relieving effects of yoga, meditation, and other mind-body practices. They found that mind-body interventions (MBIs) “reverse” changes in our DNA that cause stress.

Key Elements Included In The Study: Global Gene Expression Market

  • Gene Expression Market by Product/Technology/Grade, Application/End-user, and Region
  • Executive Summary (Opportunity Analysis and Key Trends)
  • Historical Market Size and Estimates, Value, 2018 - 2021
  • Market Value at Regional and Country Level, 2022 - 2029
  • Market Dynamics and Economic Overview
  • Market Size in Value, Growth Rates, and Forecast Figures, 2022 - 2029
  • Competitive Intelligence with Financials, Key Developments, and Portfolio of Leading Companies 
  • Regional and Product/Grade/Application/End-user Price Trends Analysis
  • Value Chain and Five Force’s Analysis
  • Regional/Sub-region/Country Market Size and Trend Analysis
  • Company Market Share Analysis and Key Player Profiles

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Disclaimer:

  • The segmentation/company profiles/countries depicted above may vary in the actual report.

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